Linanthus

Linanthus parryae Credit:  Ricardo Kriebel

Linanthus parryae Credit: Ricardo Kriebel

Linanthus is a genus of 25 species endemic to western North America. Once much more broadly circumscribed, many species of what where now considered Linanthus are placed in the more or less morphologically distinct Leptosiphon.  Furthermore, the now-defunct genus Leptodactylon is embedded in Linanthus.

Phylogeny

The species assigned to in Linanthus in the following list likely comprise a paraphyletic group.  Molecular phylogenetic evidence places Linanthus in a clade with Gymnosteris, Leptosiphon, Microsteris, and Phlox. The diminitive annual L. inyoensis clearly forms a clade with Gymnosteris.  The majority of Linanthus species are sister to a clade comprised of Leptosiphon, Microsteris, and Phlox.

Within Linanthus, relationships have generally been poorly supported (Bell et al. 1999, Bell and Patterson 2000).  However Johnson et al. (2008) recover several well-supported clades within Linanthus but some of theses clades may be artificial as a result of poor taxonomic sampling or may only be supported by indels.  Nevertheless it is clear that Leptodactylon is embedded in Linanthus (where it may or may not be monophyletic).

Biogeography

With one exception (L. dichotomus), all annual species of Linanthus are restricted to the southwestern United States and Baja California.  By contrast, the perennial members of Linanthus (Leptodactylon) are widespread in arid and montane regions of the western United States, especially L. pungens.

worldwide distribution of Linanthus

worldwide distribution of Linanthus

The chronogram of Bell and Patterson (2000) suggests that Linanthus had diversified by the Pliocene between 5 and 1.2 mya.  Furthermore, internal branch lengths suggest rapid radiations.  This diversification may have been driven by a drying climate as well as the opening of new microhabitats as the Sierra-Nevada rose to their current height (Bell and Patterson 2000).

Taxonomy

  1. Linanthus arenicola (M.E. Jones) Jeps. & V. Bailey
  2. Linanthus bellus (A. Gray) Greene
  3. Linanthus bernardinus N.S. Fraga & D.S. Bell
  4. Linanthus bieglovii (A. Gray) Greene
    • L. bieglovii (A. Gray) Greene subsp. bieglovii
    • L. bieglovii (A. Gray) Greene subsp. johnsonii J.M. Porter & R. Patt.
  5. Linanthus californicus (Hook. & Arn.)  J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
    • Linanthus californicus (Hook. & Arn.)  J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. californicus
    • Linanthus californicus (Hook. & Arn.)  J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. glandulosus (Eastw.) J.M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • Linanthus californicus (Hook. & Arn.)  J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. tomentosus (P.J. Gordon-Reedy) J.M. Porter & R. Patt.
  6. Linanthus campanulatus (A. Gray) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  7. Linanthus caespitosus (Nutt.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  8. Linanthus concinnus Milliken
  9. Linanthus demissus (A.Gray) Greene
  10. Linanthus dianthiflorus (Benth.) Greene
  11. Linanthus dichotomus Benth.
    • Linanthus dichotomus Benth. subsp. dicotomus
    • Linanthus dichotomus Benth.  subsp. meridianus (Eastw.) H. Mason
    • Linanthus dichotomus Benth. subsp. pattersonii J.M. Porter
  12. Linanthus filiformis (C. Parry) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  13. Linanthus glabrum (R. Patt. & M. Yoder-Williams) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  14. Linanthus inyoensis (I.M. Jonst.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  15. Linanthus jaegeri (P.A. Munz) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  16. Linanthus jonesii (A. Gray) Greene
  17. Linanthus killipii H. Mason
  18. Linanthus maculatus (Parish) Milliken
    • Linanthus maculatus (Parish) Milliken subsp. emaculatus J.M. Porter, D.S. Bell & R. Patt.
    • Linanthus maculatus (Parish) Milliken subsp. maculatus
  19. Linanthus maricopensis J.M. Porter & R. Patt.
  20. Linanthus orcuttii (C. Parry & A. Gray) Jeps.
  21. Linanthus parryae (A. Gray) Greene
  22. Linanthus pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
    • L. pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. hallii (Parish) J. M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • L. pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. hazeliae (Peck) J. L. Schultz & R. Patt.
    • L. pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. hookeri (Douglas) J. M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • L. pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. pulchriflorus (Brand) J. M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • L. pungens (Torr.) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson subsp. pungens
  23. Linanthus uncinalis (Brandegee) Moran
  24. Linanthus veachii (C. Parry) J.M. Porter & L.A. Johnson
  25. Linanthus watsonii (A. Gray) Wherry
    • Linanthus watsonii (A. Gray) Wherry subsp. dolmiticus J. M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • Linanthus watsonii (A. Gray) Wherry subsp. laccoliticus J. M. Porter & R. Patt.
    • Linanthus watsonii (A. Gray) Wherry subsp.watsonii
  26. Linanthus viscainensis Moran

References

Bell, C. D. and R. Patterson. 2000. Molecular Phylogeny of Linanthus (Polemoniaceae). American Journal of Botany  87: 1857-1870.

Bell, C. D., R. Patterson, and L. A. Hamilton. 1999. Sectional Integrity in Linanthus: A Molecular Phylogeny of sect. Dianthoides. Systematic Botany  24: 632-644.

Johnson, L. A., L. M. Chan, T. L. Weese, L. D. Busby, and S. McMurry. 2008. Nuclear and cpDNA sequences combined provide strong inference of higher phylogenetic relationships in the phlox family (Polemoniaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 997-1012.

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